Your child needs to know and understand a few basic concepts when he or she starts school. The five main concepts are:
Color: Teach your child to recognize the Primary Colors (red, yellow and blue) and the Secondary Colors (orange, green and purple. She should understand that the secondary colors are made by mixing the primary colors together (red yellow = orange; yellow blue = green; red blue = purple).
Shape: Teach your child to recognize and name circles, squares, triangles, rectangles, diamonds, ovals, semi-circles, hexagons and stars. You can make a game out of seeing how many of each shape you can spot while on a walk or bus-ride.
Size: Help your child to practice recognizing difference in size. Talk about small, smaller, smallest and big, bigger, biggest. Ask her who is the tallest in your family and who is the shortest. When looking at pictures of animals, ask which is the biggest and which the smallest; which has the longest tail and which the shortest.
Texture: Let your child feel the different textures of things and talk about how they feel and the words that describe them. Is the tree bark smooth or rough? Is the dog's coat soft or wiry? Stone is hard, cotton wool is soft, and so on.
Time: Learning to tell the time is hard for young children, but you should talk with them about time and show them clocks and watches. Your can tell him that his bedtime is at half-past seven, and that you will have lunch at one o' clock and dinner at six o' clock. You can teach her about yesterday, today and tomorrow, and about morning, afternoon and evening. He should know the days of the week, and the months of the year. Songs and nursery rhymes can help children to remember the names of days and months and the order they go in.